The processing speed theory of adult age differences in cognition

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Nicole D. Anderson, Fergus I. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue.

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Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Salthouse, T. Psychological Review,

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Inspection of Table 1 reveals that almost all of the differences involving an adjustment are smaller than the initial differences i. Unlike those theories, however, the central construct in the processing-speed theory has been reliably operationalized, and a large body of evidence based on statistical control and path analysis p Results from manipulations of stimulus presentation time can The processing-speed theory also has a resemblance to theories attempting to account for age-cognition relations in terms of broad explanatory mechanisms such as processing resources e.

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PMID: DOI: There have been many tests of Karasek's demand-control model of work stress.

Sex differences in cognitionor mental abilities, are widely studied in the current scientific literature. Biological and genetic differences in combination with environment and culture have resulted in the cognitive differences among men and women. Among biological factors, hormones such as testosterone and estrogen may play some role mediating these differences.

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Although cross-sectional studies suggest that cognitive aging starts in midlife, few longitudinal studies have documented within-individual declines in cognitive performance before the seventh decade. Learning from repeat testing, or practice effects, can mask the decline in younger cohorts. In women, the menopause transition also affects test performance and can confound estimates of underlying decline. We designed this study to determine if, after controlling for practice effects, the menopause transition, and the symptoms associated with it, there is evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women.

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A theory is proposed to account for some of the age-related differences reported in measures of Type A or fluid cognition. The central hypothesis in the theory is that increased age in adulthood is associated with a decrease in the speed with which many processing operations can be executed and that this reduction in speed leads to impairments in cognitive functioning because of what are termed the limited time mechanism and the simultaneity mechanism. That is, cognitive perfor-mance is degraded when processing is slow because relevant operations cannot be successfully exe-cuted limited time and because the products of early processing may no longer be available when later processing is complete simultaneity.

Traditional neuropsychological measurement of cognitive processing speed with tasks such as the Symbol Search and Coding subsets of the WAIS-IV, consistently show decline with advancing age. This is potentially problematic with populations where deficits in motor performance are expected, i. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the contribution of hand motor speed to traditional paper-and-pencil measures of processing speed and to a simple computer-customized non-motor perception decision task, the Inspection Time IT task.

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